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Bagnardi, M., M. P. Poland, D. Carbone, S. Baker, M. Battaglia, and F. Amelung. Gravity changes and deformation at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii, associated with summit eruptive activity, 2009–2012. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 119, doi: 10.1002/ 2014JB011506., 2014

Lin, G. Three-dimensional compressional attenuation model (Qp) for the Salton Trough, southern California, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 104, doi: 10.1785/0120140049., 2014

Zhang, Q. and G. Lin. Three-dimensional Vp and Vp/Vs models in the Coso geothermal field, California: seismic characterization of the magmatic system. J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi: 10.1002/2014JB010992., 2014

Lin, G., P. M. Shearer, R. S. Matoza, P. G. Okubo, and F. Amelung. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes from local seismic tomography. Geophys. Res., 119, 1-16,, doi: 10.1002/2013JB010820., 2014

Lin, G. Three-dimensional compressional wave attenuation tomography for the crust and uppermost mantle of northern and central California. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 3462–3477, doi: 10.1002/2013JB010621., 2014

Li, P. and G. Lin. Adaptive ambient noise tomography and its application to the Garlock fault, southern California. Geophys. J. Int., doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu073., 2014

Lin, G., F. Amelung, Y. Lavallée, and P. G. Okubo. Seismic evidence for a crustal magma reservoir beneath the upper east rift zone of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Geology, doi: 10.1130/G35001.1., 2014

Feliciano, E., Wdowinski, S., and Potts, M. Assessing Mangrove Above-Ground Biomass and Structure using Terrestrial Laser Scanning: A Case Study in the Everglades National Park. Wetlands, doi: 10.1007/s13157-014-0558-6., 2014

Fattahi, H. and F. Amelung. InSAR Uncertainty Due to Orbital Errors. Geophysical Journal International, 199, 1, 549-560 doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu276, 2014


Chaussard, E., and F., Amelung, Characterization of Geological Hazards Using a Globally Observing Spaceborne SAR, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 79, 11, 982-986, 2013

Bagnardi, M., F. Amelung, and M. Poland, A new model for the growth of basaltic shields based on deformation of Fernandina volcano, Galápagos Islands, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., Vol. 377-378, pp. 358-366, 2013

Chaussard, E., F. Amelung, and Y. Aoki, Characterization of open and closed volcanic systems in Indonesia and Mexico using InSAR time series, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50288, 2013

Plattner, C., F. Amelung, S. Baker, R. Govers, and M. Poland, The role of viscous magma mush spreading in volcanic flank motion at Kılauea Volcano, Hawai'i, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50194, 2013

Osmanoglu, B., T. Dixon, and S. Wdowinski, 3-D phase unwrapping for satellite radar interferometry, I: DEM generation, IEEE Geosciences and Remote Sensing, in press , 2013

Yin, H., S. Wdowinski, X. Liu, W. Gan, G. Xiao, B Huang, and S. Liang, Strong ground motion recorded by high-rate GPS of the 2008 Ms= 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, China, Seismological Research Letter, 87, 210-218, doi: 10.1785/ 0220120109, 2013

Kim, S-W, S. Wdowinski, F. Amelung, T. H. Dixon, and J-S Won, Interferometric coherence analysis of the Everglades wetlands, South Florida, IEEE Geosciences and Remote Sensing, in press, 2013

Yang, Q., S. Wdowinski, and T.H. Dixon, Annual Variation of Coastal Uplift in Greenland as an Indicator of Variable and Accelerating Ice Mass Loss, Geochem. Geophys., Geosys, in press, 2013

Ebmeier, S. K., Biggs, J., Mather, T. A., & Amelung, F., Applicability of InSAR to tropical volcanoes: insights from Central America, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 380,, 2013

Fattahi, H. and F. Amelung, DEM Error Correction in InSAR Time Series, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 51 no.7, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2012.2227761, 2013

Chaussard, E. Amelung, F. Abidin, H. Hong, S.-H., Sinking Cities in Indonesia: ALOS-PALSAR detects rapid subsidence due to groundwater and gas extraction, Remote Sensing of Environment, 128, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2012.10.015, 2013

Bagnardi, M. and F. Amelung, Space-geodetic evidence for multiple magma reservoirs and subvolcanic lateral intrusions at Fernandina Volcano, Galapagos Islands J. Geophys. Res., 117, B10406, doi:10.1029/2012JB009465, 2012

Baker, S. and F. Amelung, Top-down inflation and deflation at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii observed with InSAR, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JB009123, 2012

Chaussard, E. and F. Amelung, Precursory inflation of shallow magma reservoirs at west Sunda volcanoes detected by InSAR, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2012GL053817, 2012

S.K. Ebmeier, J. Biggs, T.A. Mather, J.R. Elliott, G. Wadge and F. Amelung, Measuring large topographic change with InSAR: lava thicknesses, extrusion rate and subsidence rate at Santiaguito Volcano, Guatemala, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 335-336, 216-225, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2012.04.027, 2012

Bell, J. W., F. Amelung, and C. D. Henry, InSAR analysis of the 2008 Reno-Mogul earthquake swarm: Evidence for westward migration of Walker Lane style dextral faulting. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L18306, doi:10.1029/2012GL052795, 2012

Cigna, F., Osmanoglu B., Cabral-Cano E., Dixon T.H., Ávila-Olivera J.A., Garduño- Monroy V.H., DeMets C., Wdowinski S., Monitoring land subsidence and its induced geological hazard with Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry: a case study in Morelia, Mexico, Remote Sensing of Environment, 117, 146-161. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2011.09.005, 2012

M. Sadeh, M., Y. Hamiel, A. Ziv, Y. Bock, P. Fang, and S. Wdowinski, Crustal deformation along the Dead Sea Transform and the Carmel Fault inferred from 12 years of GPS measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 117, B08410, 14 PP., doi:10.1029/2012JB009241, 2012

Nof, R. N., A. Ziv, M.-P. Doin, G. Baer, Y. Fialko, S. Wdowinski, Y. Eyal, and Y. Bock, Rising of the lowest place on Earth due to Dead Sea water-level drop: Evidence from SAR interferometry and GPS, J. Geophys. Res., 117, B05412, doi:10.1029/2011JB008961, 2012

Bock, Y., S. Wdowinski, A. Ferretti, F. Novali, and A. Fumagalli, Recent subsidence of the Venice Lagoon from continuous GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q03023, doi:10.1029/2011GC003976, 2012a

Bock, Y., S. Wdowinski, A. Ferretti, F. Novali, and A. Fumagalli, Reply to comment by P. Teatini et al. on "Recent subsidence of the Venice Lagoon from continuous GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar", Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q08011, doi:10.1029/2012GC004270, 2012b

Jiang, Y., S. Wdowinski, T. H. Dixon, M. Hackl, M. Protti, and V. Gonzalez, Slow slip events in Costa Rica detected by continuous GPS observations, 2002–2011, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q04006, doi:10.1029/2012GC004058, 2012


Hong, S-H, and S. Wdowinski, Evaluation of the quad-polarimetric RADARSAT-2 observations for the wetland InSAR application, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 37, Issue 5, pp. 484-492, 2011

Parks, M.M,, J. Biggs, T.A. Mather, D.M. Pyle, F. Amelung, M. L. Monsalve, L. Narvaez Medina, Co-eruptive subsidence at Galeras identified during an InSAR survey of Colombian volcanoes (2006–2009). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 202, 228–240, 2011

Osmanoglu, B., T.Dixon, S. Wdowinski, and E. Cabral-Cano, On the Importance of Path for Phase Unwrapping in Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry, Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 19, pp. 3205-3220,doi: 10.1364/AO.50.003205, 2011

Osmanoglu, B., T.Dixon, S. Wdowinski, E. Cabral-Cano, and Y. Jiang, Mexico City subsidence observed with Persistent Scatterer InSAR, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, doi:10.1016/j.jag.2010.05.009, 2011

Gourmelen, N., T. Dixon,F. Amelung,G. Schmalzle, Acceleration and evolution of faults: An examples from Hunter Mountian-Panamint Valley fault zone, Eastern California, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, V. 301, 402-406, 2011


Ebmeier, S. K., J. Biggs, T. A. Mather, G. Wadge, and F. Amelung (2010), Steady downslope movement on the western flank of Arenal volcano, Costa Rica, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 11, Q12004, doi:10.1029/2010GC003263, 2010

Hong, S-H, S. Wdowinski, S-W Kim, Space-based multi-temporal monitoring of wetland water levels: Case study of WCA1 in the Everglade, Remote Sensing for Environment, 2010b

Calais E., A. Freed, G. Mattioli, F. Amelung,S. Jonsson, P. Jansma, S-H. Hong. T.H. Dixon, C. Prepetit and R. Momplaisir, Transpressional rupture of an umapped fault during the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Nature Geosicence, V. 3, November 2010, doi:10.1038/NGEO992, 2010

Biggs, J., P Mothes, M. Ruiz, F. Amelung, T.H. Dixon, S. Baker and S-H. Hong, Stratovolcano growth by co-eruptive intrusion: The 2008 eruption of Tungurahua Ecuador, Geophys. Res. Letter, V. 37, L212302, doi:10.1029/2010GL044942, 2010

Fulton P.M., G. Schmalzle, R. N. Harris, T. Dixon, Reconciling patterns of interseismic strain accumulation with thermal observations across the Carrizo segment of the San Andreas Fault, Earth and Planetary Science Letterrs, V. 3000, 402-406, , 2010

Gourmelen N., F. Amelung, and R. Lanari, Interferometric synthetic aperture radar-GPS intergration: Interseismic strain accumulation across the Hunter Mountain fault in the eastern California shear zone, Journal of Geophysical Research, V.115, B09408, 10.1029/2009JB007064, 2010

Plattner C., S. Wdowinski, T. Dixon, and J. Biggs, Surface subsidence induced by the Crandall Canyon Mine (Utah) collapse: InSAR observations and elasto-plastic modelling, Geophysical Journal International, doi:10.1111/j.1365X.2010.4803.x, 2010

Kim, S-W, S. Wdowinski, F. Amelung, T. Dixon, S-J Won, and J-W Kim, Measurements and predictions of subsidence induced by soil consolidation using permanent scatterer InSAR and hyperbolic model, Geophysical Research Letters, V. 37, L05304, doi:10.1029/2009GL041644, 2010a

Gondwe, B.R.N., S.-H. Hong, S. Wdowinski, and P. Bauer-Gottwein, Hydrodynamics of the groundwater-dependent Sian-Kaan wetlands, Mexico, from InSAR and SAR data, Wetlands, 30, 1-13, 2010

Hong, S-H, S. Wdowinski, S-W Kim, Evaluation of TerraSAR-X observations for Wetland InSAR application, IEEE Geosciences and Remote Sensing, 48, 864-873, 2010a

Jiang Y., T.H. Dixon, S. Wdowinski, Accelerating uplift in the North Atlantic region as an Indicator of ice loss, Nature Geoscience, Epub 16 May, 2010

OuterBridge K. C., T.H. Dixon, S.Y. Schwartz, J.I. Walter, Marino Protti, V. Gonzalez, J. Biggs, M. Thorwart, W. Rabbel, A Tremor and Slip Event on the Cocos-Caribbean Subduction zone as measured by a GPS and Seismic Network on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, Journal of Geophysical Research, accepted for publication May, 2010

Weber, M. Vrabec, P. Pavlovčič-Prešeren, T. H. Dixon, Y. Jiang, B. Stopar, GPS-derived motion of the Adriatic microplate from Istria Peninsula and Po Plain sites, and geodynamic implications, Tectonophysics, 483, 214-222, 2010


LaFemina P, Dixon TH, Govers R, et al., Fore-arc motion and Cocos Ridge collision in Central America, Geochem. Geophys. Geosys., 10, 1525-2027, 2009

Wdowinski, S., Deep Creep as a cause of excess seismicity along the San Jacinto Fault, Nature-Geosciences, 2, 882-885, 2009

Wdowinski, S. and S. Eriksson, Geodesy in the 21st century, EOS Trans. AGU, 90, 153-155, 2009

Weber, J. C., J. Saleh, S. Balkaransingh, T. Dixon, W. Ambeh, T. Leong, A. Rodriguez, K. Miller, Triangulation-to-GPS and GPS-to-GPS geodesy in Trinidad, West Indies: Neotectonics, seismic risk, and geologic implications, Marine and Petroleum Geology, , 2009

Biggs, J., David P. Robinson, Timothy H. Dixon, The 2007 Pisco, Peru earthquake(M8.0):seismology and geodesy, Geophys. J. Int., v.176, p.657-669, 2009

Biggs J., Amelung F, Gourmelen N, et al., InSAR observations of 2007 Tanzania rifting episode reveal mixed fault and dyke extension in an immature continental rift, Geophys. J. Int., v.179, p.549-558-669, 2009


Bell, J. W., F. Amelung, A. Ferretti, M. Bianchi, and F. Novali (2008), Permanent Scatterer InSAR Reveals Seasonal and Long-Term Aquifer-System Response to Groundwater Pumping and Artificial Recharge, Water Resour. Res., doi:10.1029/2007WR006152, 2008

Cabral-Cano, E. et al., Space geodetic imaging of rapid ground subsidence in Mexico City, GSA Bulletin, November 2008, v.120, no. 11-12, p. 1556-1566, 2008

Wdowinski, S. et al., Space-based detection of wetlands' surface water level changes from L-band SAR interferometry, Remote Sensing of Environment, v.112, p.681-696, 2008

Kim, S. W. et al., InSAR-based mapping of surface subsidence in Mokpo City, Korea, using JERS-1 and ENVISAT SAR data, Earth Planets Space, v.60, p. 453-461, 2008

Dixon, T. H. and R.K. Dokka, Earth scientists and public policy: have we failed New Orleans?, EOS: Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, v. 89, #10, p. 96, 2008


Manconi, A., T.R. Walter and F. Amelung, Effects of mechanical layering on volcano deformation, Geophysical Journal International, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03449.x, 2007

Walter T.R, Amelung F., Volcanic eruptions following M≥9 megathrust earthquakes: Implications for the Sumatra-Andaman volcanoes, Geology, 35(6), 539–542, DOI: 10.1130/G23429A.1x, 2007

Amelung et al., Stress Control of Deep Rift Intrusion at Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii, Science, vol 316, pp. 1026-1030, May 2007 , doi:10.1126/science.1140035, 2007

Plattner et al., New constraints on relative motion between the Pacific Plate and Baja California microplate (Mexico) from GPS measurements, Geophys. J. Int., March 13th, 2007 , doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03494.x, 2007

Sinigalliano et al., Impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the microbial landscape of the New Orleans area, PNAS., pnas.0610552104, April 2007

Wdowinski S., B. Smith-Konter, Y. Bock and D. Sanwell, Diffuse interseismic deformation across the Pacific-North America plate boundary, Geology, v. 35, no. 4, p. 311-314 , 2007 Appendices

Cailleau B., P.C.LaFemina and T. H. Dixon, Stress accumulation between volcanoes: an explanation for intra­arc earthquakes in Nicaragua?, Geophys. J. Int., 22 Feb 2007 , doi: 10.1111/j.1365­246X.2007.03353.x, 2007

Gourmelen, N., F. Amelung, F. Casu, M.R. Manzo, R. Lanari (2007), Mining-related ground deformation in Crescent Valley, Nevada: Implications for sparse GPS networks, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L09309, doi:10.1029/2007GL029427, 2007

Giovanni F. Sella, Seth Stein, Timothy H. Dixon, Michael Craymer, Thomas S. James, Stephane Mazzotti, and Roy K. Dokka, Observation of glacial isostatic adjustment in ``stable'' North America with GPS, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02306, doi:10.1029/2006GL027081, 2007

Henry L. Turner III, Peter La Femina, Armando Saballos, Glen S. Mattioli, Pamela E. Jansma, and Timothy Dixon,Kinematics of the Nicaraguan forearc from GPS geodesy, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02302, doi:10.1029/2006GL027586, 2007

Pritchard M.E., Norabuena, E.O., Ji. C,, et al., Kinematics of the Nicaraguan forearc from GPS geodesy, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02302, doi:10.1029/2006GL027586, 2007

Sella G.F., Stein, S., Dixon, T.H., et al., Observation of glacial isostatic adjustment in "stable" North America with GPS Journal of Geophys. Res. - Solid Earth, 112, 2007


Biggs, J. , Bergman, E., Emmerson, B., Funning, G., Jackson, J., Parsons, B., Wright, T. 2006 , Fault Identification for Buried Strike-Slip Earthquakes using InSAR: The 1994 and 2004 Al Hoceima, Morocco Earthquakes. Geophysical Journal International, 166 1347-1362, 2006

Walter T. R., F. Amelung, Volcano-earthquake interaction at Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B05204, doi:10.1029/2005JB003861, 2006

Lopez A.M., S. Stein, T. Dixon, G. Sella, E. Calais, P. Jansma, J. Weber, and P. La Femina, Is there a northern Lesser Antilles forearc block?, Geophys. Res. Lett., VOL. 33, L7313, doi:10.1029/2005GL025293, 2006

Roy K. Dokka, Giovanni F. Sella, and Timothy H. Dixon, Tectonic control of subsidence and southward displacement of southeast Louisiana with respect to stable North America, Geophys. Res. Lett., VOL. 33, L23308, doi:10.1029/2006GL027250, 2006

Dixon, T.H., F. Amelung, A. Ferretti, F. Novali, F. Rocca, R. Dokka, G. Sella, Sang-Wan Kim, S. Wdowinski, Dean Whitman, New Orleans subsidence and relation to flooding after Hurricane Katrina as measured by space geodesy, Nature, v.441, p.587-588, 2006

Dixon TH, Pivirotto TJ, Chapman RF, et al.,: A range-gated laser system for ocean floor imaging Marine Tech Soc J, (Reprinted from Marine Technology Society Journal, vol 17, 1983), 40, 126-133, 2006

Dixon, T.H., F. Amelung, A.Ferretti, F. Novali, F. Rocca, R. Dokka, G. Sella, Sang-Wan Kim, S. Wdowinski, Dean Whitman, New Orleans subsidence and relation to flooding after Hurricane Katrina as measured by space geodesy (Supplemental Information), Nature, 2006

Iaffaldano, G., H. P. Bunge, T. H. Dixon, Feedback between mountain belt growth and plate convergence, Geology, v.34, p.893-896, 2006

Schmalzle, G., T. H. Dixon, R. Malservisi, R. Govers, Strain accumulation across the Carrizo Segment of the San Andreas Fault, California: Impact of laterally varying crustal properties, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B5, 2006

Talebian, M., Biggs, J., Bolourchi, M., Copley, A., Ghassemi, A., Ghorashi, M., Hollingsworth, J., Jackson, J., Nissen, E., Oveisi, B., Parsons, B., Priestley, K. & Saiidi, A., 2006, The Dahuiyeh (Zarand) earthquake of 2005 February 22 in central Iran: reactivation of an intra-mountain thrust, Geophysical Journal International, 164, 137-148, 2006

Wdowinski, S., Ben-Avraham, Z., Arvidsson, R., Ekstrom, G. Seismotectonics of the Cyprian Arc, Geophysical Journal International, 164, 176-181, 2006

Weinberger R., Z.B. Begin, N. Waldman, M. Gardosh, G. Baer, A. Frumkin, and S. Wdowinski, Quaternary rise of the Sedom diaper, Dead Sea Basin, in Enzel, Y., A. Agnon, and M. Stein, New frontiers in the Dead Sea paleoenvironmental research: Geol. Soc. Am.,, special paper 401, 33-35, 10.1130/2006.2401, 2006

Walter, T.R., F. Amelung, Volcano-earthquake interaction at Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii, Jour. Geophys. Res., 111, B05204, doi: 10.1029/2005JB003861, 2006

Wright, T., Ebinger, C., Biggs, J.,, Ayele, A., Yirgu, G., Keir, D., Stork, A. 2006, Dyke-maintained segmentation during continental rupture on the Afar rift in 2005, Nature, 442, doi:10.1038/nature04978, 2006

Newman, A. V., T. H. Dixon, N. Gourmelen, A four-dimensional viscoelastic deformatio model for Long Valley Caldera, California, between 1995-2000, J. Volc. Geotherm Res., 150, 244-269, 2006

DeShon, et al., Seismogenic zone structure beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, from three-dimensional local earthquake P- and S-wave tomography, Geophys. J. Int., 164, 109-124, 2006


Gourmelen, N. and F. Amelung, Post-seismic mantle relaxation in the Central Nevada Seismic, Science, 310: 1473-1476, doi:10.1126/science.1119798, 2005

Walter T. R., V. Acocella, M. Neri, F. Amelung, Feedback processes between magmatic events and flank movement at Mount Etna (Italy) during the 2002–2003 eruption, J. Geophys. Res., 110, B10205,, doi:10.1029/2005JB003688, 2005

LaFemina, P. C., T.H. Dixon, R. Malservisi, T. Árnadóttir, E. Sturkell, F. Sigmundsson, P. Einarsson, Geodetic GPS measurements in South Iceland: strain accumulation and partitioning in a propagating ridge system, J. Geophys. Res., 110, B11405,, doi:1029/2005/JB003675, 2005


Walter T.R, V. Troll, B. Cailleau, A. Belousov, H. U. Schmincke, P. Bogaard, F. Amelung (2004) Rift zone reorganization through flank instability on ocean island volcanoes: Tenerife, Canary Islands, Bull. Volc., , doi:10.1007/s00445-004-0352, 2004

Walter, T. R., and F. Amelung, Influence of volcanic activity at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, on earthquake occurrence in the Kaoiki fault zone, Hawaii, Geophys. Res. Letters., 31, L07622, doi:10.1029/2003GL019131, 2004

Norabuena, E. T. H. Dixon, S. Schwartz, H. DeShon, A. Newman, M. Protti, V. Gonzalez, L. Dorman, E. Flueh, P. Lundgren, F. Pollitz, D. Sampson, Geodetic and seismic constraints on some seismogenci zone processes in Costa Rica, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11403, doi:10.1029/2003JB002931, 2004

Wdowinski, S., F. Amelung, F. Miralles-Wilhelm, T. H. Dixon, R. Carande, Space-based measurements of sheet flow characteristics in the Everglades, wetland, Florida, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1673, doi:10.1029/2003GL017408, 2004

Wdowinski, S. et al, GPS measurements of current crustal movements along the Dead Sea Fault, J. Geophys. Res., 109, doi:10.1029/2003JB002640, 2004

Wang, K., and T. H. Dixon, Coupling semantics and science in earthquake research, EOS, 85, no. 18, 180-181, 2004


Malservisi, R., T. Dixon, P. LaFemina, Holocene slip rate of the Wasatch fault zone, Utah, from geodetic data, Geophys. Res. Lett., , doi:10.1007/s00445-004-0352, 2004